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Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered on the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, with Kazakhstan and Russia across the Caspian Sea; on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; on the west by Iraq; and on the northwest by Turkey. Comprising a land area of 636,372 square miles, it is the second-largest nation in the Middle Eastand the 18th largest in the world, with over 77 million inhabitants, Iran is the world’s 17th most populous nation. It is the only country that has both a Caspian Sea and Indian Ocean coastline. Iran has been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia and the Strait of Hormuz. Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC and OPEC.
After 1979 Islamic revolution Iran’s domestic and international politics is highly affected by Islamic thoughts. However now, 32 years after the Islamic revolution some moderate political and social groups are growing up, but still they do not have substantial effects on the politics, and the power is on the hands of followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, the leader and founder of Islamic revolution on 1979. The legislative branch of Iranian government for making laws and regulations is Majlis Shoraye Islami. All of the laws enacted by Islamic Consultative Assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council of the constitution to be made sure that all enacted laws are adapted to the Islamic rules and the constitution. So it means that all of laws are adapted to Islamic rules and every enterprise or firm has to follow the necessities of working in Islamic country. Being affected by the religious and Islamic rules is one aspect of regulation structure in Iran, but on the other hand Iranian business environment suffers from some outdated and old.
Inflation rate for Iran is 13.50% for year 2010 while in 2009 it was 25.60%. It is transition economy with large public sector and estimated 50% of economy centrally planned. A unique feature is the large size of religious foundations whose combined budget makes up more than 30% of central government. Unemployment rate is 11.80%. According to official estimates some 3.5 million working age Iranians are currently unemployed. The jobless rate is high among women and youth of Islamic republic. GDP, real growth rate is 1.50%. GDP per capita is $ 4732. It is 18th largest economy purchasing power parity. Iran’s non-oil exports, excluding gas condensates to the Gulf Cooperation Council were valued at $2.281 billion during the first 9 months of the current Iranian calendar year, showing 25% over the same period last year. The economic growth prospect for IRAN in 2011 is 3.2%. Prospects for both developing and high income economies of Middle East and North Africa should improve through 2011. Oil prices are expected to remain broadly stable over the forecast period, at around $75 a barrel. Strong global activity is allowing crude oil to return positive growth. Oil prices are expected to remain stable over forecast period at $75 per barrel. GDP growth for developing oil exporters should reach 3.1% and 3.7%, respectively, in 2010 and 2011.
Iran has a unique political system, based on the 1979 constitution, combines elements of a parliamentary democracy with a religious theocracy run by the country’s clergy, wherein the Supreme Leader wields significant influence. A multicultural nation comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shi’ites, the Iranian rial is its currency, and Persian is the official language. Iran is a diverse country, consisting of many different religious and ethnic groups that are unified through a shared Persian language and culture. Iran’s population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 19 million in 1956 to around 75 million by 2009. However, Iran’s birth rate has dropped significantly in recent years, leading to a population growth rate recorded from July 2012, of about 1.29%. Studies project that Iran’s rate of growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 105 million by 2050.
Iran is an example of a country that has made considerable advances through education and training, despite international sanctions in almost all aspects of research during the past 30 years. Iran’s university population swelled from 100,000 in 1979 to 2 million in 2006. 70% of its science and engineering students are women. Iran’s scientific progress is reported to be the fastest in the world. Iran has made great strides in different sectors, including aerospace, nuclear science, medical development, as well as stem cell and cloning research, and Iran’s scientists cautiously reach out to the world. Many individual Iranian scientists, along with the Iranian Academy of Medical Sciences and Academy of Sciences of Iran, are involved in this revival. Considering the country’s brain drain and its poor political relationship with the United States and some other Western countries, Iran’s scientific community remains productive, even while economic sanctions make it difficult for universities to buy equipment or to send people to the United States to attend scientific meetings. Furthermore, Iran considers scientific backwardness, as one of the root causes of political and military bullying by developed countries over undeveloped states. Satisfactory GDP per capita position in comparison to Middle East countries. High unemployment rate supports new economic activities by accessible and probably cheap labor supply. Ethnic diversity and a variety of languages have to be taken into consideration when thinking about enhanced mobile services. After the Iranian Revolution, there have been efforts by the religious scholars to assimilate Islam with modern science and this is seen by some as the reason behind the recent successes of Iran to augment its scientific output.